The most common type of Knee Osteotomy is a high tibial osteotomy. Before the procedure, your surgeon will determine the precise size of the bone wedge to be removed using an X-ray, CT scan, or 3D computer modeling. After administering general anesthesia, a four- to five-inch incision is made in front of the knee, below the kneecap, and along the top of the shinbone. Guide wires are drilled from the lateral side to the top of the shinbone, and an oscillating saw is run along the guide wires to remove the bone wedge below the healthy cartilage on the outside of the knee. The top of the shinbone is then reshaped and secured with staples or screws, leaving the cartilage covering the top of the outside of the shinbone intact. Finally, the surgical site is sutured with absorbable sutures and closed in layers.
Potential complications after a high tibial osteotomy may include infection, skin necrosis, non-union (failure of the bones to heal), nerve or blood vessel damage, failure to correct the varus deformity, compartment syndrome, and deep vein thrombosis or blood clots.